Technicolor No. I

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter

Secondary Sources

Herbert T. Kalmus (1938): Technicolor Adventures in Cinemaland. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 31,6, 1938, pp. 564-585, on pp. 565-566.

Haines, Richard W. (1993): Technicolor Movies. The History of Dye Transfer Printing. Jefferson, North Carolina : McFarland.

Nowotny, Robert A. (1983): The Way of All Flesh Tones. A History of Color Motion Picture Processes, 1895-1929. New York: Garland Pub., pp. 202-210.

Cherchi Usai, Paolo (2000): Silent Cinema. London: BFI, pp. 37-38.

Ruedel, Ulrich (2009): The Technicolor Notebooks at the George Eastman House. In: Film History, Volume 21, Number 1, 2009, pp. 47-60, on p. 49.

Coe, Brian (1981): The History of Movie Photography. Westfield, N.J.: Eastview Editions, p. 132.

Klein, Adrian Bernhard = Cornwell-Clyne (1940): Colour Cinematography. Boston: American Photographic Pub. Co. 2nd revised edition, p. 14.

Cornwell-Clyne, Adrian (1951): Colour Cinematography. London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 451-479 (all Technicolor processes).

Brown, Simon (2012): Technical Appendix: Technicolor. In: Street, Sarah: Colour Films in Britain. The Negotiation of Innovation 1900-55. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 284-286 (all Technicolor processes).

Fossati, Giovanna (1998): When Cinema Was Coloured. In: Luciano Berriatúa et al.: Tutti i colori del mondo. Il colore nei mass media tra 1900 e 1930. = All the colours of the world. Reggio Emilia: Edizioni Diabasis, pp. 121-132, on p. 122.

Neale, Steve (1985): The Beginnings of Technicolor. In: Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price (eds.): Color. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, 2006, pp. 13-23, on p. 13.

3 images

  • Ruedel_technicolor1_fig1.jpg

Technicolor No. II

Subtractive 2 color: 2 toned films cemented

Secondary Sources

Kalmus, Herbert T. (1938): Technicolor Adventures in Cinemaland. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 31,6, 1938, pp. 564-585, on pp. 566-571.

Cherchi Usai, Paolo (2000): Silent Cinema. London: BFI, p. 38.

Nowotny, Robert A. (1983): The Way of All Flesh Tones. A History of Color Motion Picture Processes, 1895-1929. New York: Garland Pub., pp. 210-217  and pp. 220-224.

Haines, Richard W. (1993): Technicolor Movies. The History of Dye Transfer Printing. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland, pp. 4-7.

Ruedel, Ulrich (2009): The Technicolor Notebooks at the George Eastman House. In: Film History, Volume 21, Number 1, 2009, pp. 47-60, on p. 49.

Happé, Bernard (1984): 80 Years of Colour Cinematography. London: British Kinematograph Sound & Television Society, p. 8.

Coe, Brian (1981): The History of Movie Photography. Westfield, N.J.: Eastview Editions, p. 132.

Ryan, Roderick T. (1977): A History of Motion Picture Color Technology. London: Focal Press, pp. 78-79.

Cornwell-Clyne, Adrian (1951): Colour Cinematography. London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 451-479 (all Technicolor processes).

Behlmer, Rudy (1964): Technicolor. In: Films in Review 15,6, 1964, pp. 333-351, on pp. 336-342.

Koshofer (1993): Seit 75 Jahren Technicolor-Filme. In: Film & TV Kameramann, 42,1, 1993, pp. 24-34, on p. 24. (in German)

Brown, Simon (2012): Technical Appendix: Technicolor. In: Street, Sarah: Colour Films in Britain. The Negotiation of Innovation 1900-55. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 284-286 (all Technicolor processes).

Neale, Steve (1985): The Beginnings of Technicolor. In: Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price (eds.): Color. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, 2006, pp. 13-23, on pp. 14-15 and on p. 18.

Pinel, Vincent (1992): La forêt des techniques. In: Michel Ciment (ed.): Ciné mémoire. Colloque international d’information (7-9 octobre 1991). Paris: Femis, pp. 17-24, on p. 21-22. (in French)

15 images

  • Phantomtechnicolor.jpg

Margaret Herrick Library (13 images)

  • MargaretHerrick_TechnicolorII_TenCommandments_1923_MG_0426

Four different prints of Ben Hur (1925) (40 images)

  • BenHur_Niblo_1925_BW_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0116

Lights of Old Broadway (1925) (9 images)

  • LOC_24281-1-6-LightsOfOldBroadway_TechnicolorII_IMG_0017

Technicolor Collection (17 images)

  • GEH_TechnicolorCollection_19_TechnicolorII_IMG_0032

Technicolor No. III

Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, dye transfer

Original Technical Papers and Primary Sources

Ball, J. Arthur (1935): The Technicolor process of three-color cinematography. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 25,2, 1935, pp. 127-138, on pp. 128-129.

Secondary Sources

Kalmus, Herbert T. (1938): Technicolor Adventures in Cinemaland. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 31,6, 1938, pp. 564-585, on pp. 571-577.

Ryan, Roderick T. (1977): A History of Motion Picture Color Technology. London: Focal Press, p. 79.

Nowotny, Robert A. (1983): The Way of All Flesh Tones. A History of Color Motion Picture Processes, 1895-1929. New York: Garland Pub, pp. 225-243.

Haines, Richard W. (1993): Technicolor Movies. The History of Dye Transfer Printing. Jefferson, North Carolina : McFarland, pp. 8-13.

Ruedel, Ulrich (2009): The Technicolor Notebooks at the George Eastman House. In: Film History, Volume 21, Number 1, 2009, pp. 47-60, on pp. 49-50.

Cornwell-Clyne, Adrian (1951): Colour Cinematography. London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 451-479 (all Technicolor processes).

Behlmer, Rudy (1964): Technicolor. In: Films in Review 15,6, 1964, pp. 333-351, on pp. 242-243.

Brown, Simon (2012): Technical Appendix: Technicolor. In: Street, Sarah: Colour Films in Britain. The Negotiation of Innovation 1900-55. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 284-286 (all Technicolor processes).

Neale, Steve (1985): The Beginnings of Technicolor. In: Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price (eds.): Color. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, 2006, pp. 13-23, on pp. 14-15.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2015): Zwischen Chromophobie und Farbrausch. Entwicklungslinien des frühen Technicolor. In: Connie Betz, Rainer Rother, Annika Schaefer (Deutsche Kinemathek – Museum für Film und Fernsehen) (eds.): Glorious Technicolor. Berlin: Bertz und Fischer, pp. 20–47. (in German) Download

22 images

  • GEH_Buffalo Bill_10040

The Rogue Song (1930) (18 images)

  • RogueSong_TechnicolorIII_IMG_0071

Margaret Herrick Library (4 images)

  • MargaretHerrick_TechnicolorIII_GardenOfEden_1928_IMG_0430

King of Jazz (1930) (31 images)

  • LOC_1837033-1-1_KingOfJazz_Trailer_HDR_IMG_0060_single

Hell's Angels (1930) (12 images)

  • Academy_HellsAngels_TechnicolorIII_slightlyLongerExposure_IMG_0378

Cleopatra (1928) (32 images)

  • GEH_89:1676:1_CleopatraRWilliamNeill_1928_TechnicolorIII_IMG_0026

Buffalo Bill's Last Fight (1927) (29 images)

  • GEH_89:1669:1_BuffaloBillsLastFight_1927_TechnicolorIII_IMG_0064

A Josephine McLean Dance Classic (1929) (17 images)

  • GEH_89:1662:1_JosephineMcLeanDanceClassic_1929_TechnicolorIII_IMG_0036

Bright Lights (1930) (8 images)

  • LOC_13654_3-1_BrightLights_TechnicolorIII_IMG_0068

Red Hair (1928) (15 images)

  • LOC_1843614-1-1_RedHair_TechnicolorIII_HDR_IMG_0193_single

Annie Laurie (1927) (9 images)

  • LOC_24612-2-1_AnnieLaurie_TechnicolorIII_GelbWeiss_IMG_0077

The Heart of General Robert E. Lee (1928) (12 images)

  • LOC_1189089_HeartOfGeneralRobertELee_TechnicolorIII_IMG_0051

Twelve Minutes in Glacier National Park (1928) (31 images)

  • LOC_12027-1-1_TwelveMinutesInGlacierNationalPark_TechnicolorIII_HDR_IMG_0200_single

The Mysterious Island (1929) (7 images)

  • MysteriousIsland_IMG_0037

Doctor X (1932) (24 images)

  • LOC_1800634-1-1_DoctorX_TechnicolorIII_IMG_0003

The Fire Brigade (7 images)

  • LOC_64847_FireBrigade_Handschiegl_TechnicolorIII_IMG_0058

The Wedding March (1928) (34 images)

  • LOC_1479-2-1_WeddingMarch_TechnicolorIII_HDR_IMG_0249_single

Reskin (1929) (33 images)

  • LOC_1658-1-8_Redskin_TechnicolorIII_IMG_0584_single

Technicolor No. IV: Three-strip

Subtractive 3 color: Color separation, beam-splitter, dye transfer

Original Technical Papers and Primary Sources

Ball, J. Arthur (1935): The Technicolor Process of Three-color Cinematography. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 25,2, 1935, pp. 127-138. Available for download on this page.

Kalmus, Natalie M. (1935): Color Consciousness. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1935, pp. 139-147.

Hoch, Winton (1942): Technicolor Cinematography. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers 39, Aug. 1942, pp. 96-108. Available for download on this page.

Secondary Sources

Kalmus, Herbert T. (1938): Technicolor Adventures in Cinemaland. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 31,6, 1938, pp. 564-585, on pp. 577-584.

Ryan, Roderick T. (1977): A History of Motion Picture Color Technology. London: Focal Press, pp. 79-81.

Cornwell-Clyne, Adrian (1951): Colour Cinematography. London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 451-478.

Hoch, Winton (1944): Technicolor Cinematography. In: The Technique of Motion Picture Production. A Symposium of Papers Presented at the 51st Semi-annual Convention of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, Hollywood, Cal. New York: Interscience Publ. 1944, pp. 24-36.”

Valentine, Joe (1948): Lighting for Technicolor as Compared with Black and White Photography. In: International Photographer 20,1, Jan. 1948, pp. 7-10.

Basten, Fred E. (2005): Glorious Technicolor. The Movies’ Magic Rainbow. South Brunswick: Barnes.

Haines, Richard W. (1993): Technicolor Movies. The History of Dye Transfer Printing. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland.

Andrew, Dudley (2006): The Post-War Struggle for Colour. In: Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price (eds.): Color. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, 2006, pp. 40-50, on p. 44.

Higgins, Scott (2007): Harnessing the Technicolor Rainbow. Color Design in the 1930s. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Higgins, Scott (1999): Technology and Aesthetics. Technicolor Cinematography and Design in the Late 1930s. In: Film History, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 55-76.

Higgins, Scott (2000): Demonstrating Three-Colour Technicolor: “Early Three-Colour Aesthetics and Design”. In: Film History, Vol. 12, No. 4, Color Film (2000), pp. 358-383.

Neupert, Richard (1990): Technicolor and Hollywood. Exercising Color Restraint. In: Post Script 10 (1), pp. 21–29.

Anonymous (1934): What? Color in the movies again. In: Fortune 10, Oct. 1934, pp. 92-97, 161-162, 164, 166, 168, 171.

Nowotny, Robert A. (1983): The Way of All Flesh Tones. A History of Color Motion Picture Processes, 1895-1929. New York: Garland Pub., pp. 243-260.

Bourget, Jean-Loup (1995): Esthétiques du Technicolor. In: Jacques Aumont (ed.): La Couleur en cinéma. Mailand: Mazzotta. (in French)

Biberman, Edward (1946): … In Glorious Technicolor In: Hollywood Quarterly, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Oct., 1946), pp. 50-56.

Kalmus, Herbert T. (1993): Mr. Technicolor. Absecon, N.J.: Magic Image Filmbooks.

Koshofer (1993): Seit 75 Jahren Technicolor-Filme. In: Film & TV Kameramann 42,1, 1993, pp. 24-34 (in German).

Brown, Simon (2012): Technical Appendix: Technicolor. In: Street, Sarah: Colour Films in Britain. The Negotiation of Innovation 1900-55. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 284-286 (all Technicolor processes). 

Street, Sarah (2009): ‘Colour consciousness’. Natalie Kalmus and Technicolor in Britain. In: Screen 50(2), pp. 191-215.

Happé, L.B.K. (1959): The Technicolor Process. In: British Cinematography 35, 1959, pp. 4-9.

Happé, L.B.K. (1960): New Developments in Technicolor Release Printing. In: British Cinematography 37, 1960, pp. 112-116.

Schmidt, Richard / Kochs, Adolf (1943): Farbfilmtechnik. Eine Einführung für Filmschaffende. Berlin: Hesse, pp. 54-72. (Schriftenreihe der Reichsfilmkammer, 10.) (in German)

Greene, W. Howard (1938): Low Key Lighting May be as Easy in Color as it is in Monochrome. In: American Cinematographer, April 1938, p. 151.

Neale, Steve (1985): The Beginnings of Technicolor. In: Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price (eds.): Color. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, 2006, pp. 13-23, on pp. 15-21 and on p. 22.

Pinel, Vincent (1992): La forêt des techniques. In: Michel Ciment (ed.): Ciné mémoire. Colloque international d’information (7-9 octobre 1991). Paris: Femis, pp. 17-24, on pp. 21-22. (in French)

21 images

  • Technicolor_SamsonDelilah_9a.jpg

Four different versions of The Red Shoes (32 images)

  • BFI_RedShoes_ID358365H_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0171

Wings of the Morning (12 images)

  • BFI_WingsOfTheMorning_ID2030819BH_IMG_0110

Gone with the Wind (1939) (53 images)

  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_korr_IMG_0548_single

Tests for The Prisoner of Zenda (1937) (2 images)

  • Academy_PrisonerOfZendaTests_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0305

Desert Wonderland (1942) (8 images)

  • Academy_MagicMasterMovietone_DesertWonderland_IMG_0443

Barcarolle (1935) (13 images)

  • EYE_B11696_Barcarolle_USA1935_Technicolor_third_s_IMG_0039_JPG

New King NSS (GB 1936) (2 images)

  • EYE_B14150-0_Technicolor_NewKing_NSS_1936_IMG_0001

Babes in the Woods (1932) (8 images)

  • EYE_B10671_BabesIntheWoods_1932_Technicolor_IMG_0003

Animation Films (1930 and 1940) (26 images)

  • ToSpring_Technicolor_IMG_0075

World's Fair (1933-34) (21 images)

  • LOC_49451_CenturyOfProgress_Technicolor_IMG_0121

The Tales of Hoffmann (1951) (37 images)

  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_cropped_IMG_0008

La Cucaracha (1934) (30 images)

  • GEH_1974:0007:3226_CucarachaSafety_1971_EdgeCode_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0009_single

Becky Sharp (1935) (7 images)

  • BeckySharp_Technicolor_IMG_0121_single

Portrait Collection (35 images)

  • GEH_PortraitCollection_AliceFaye_IMG_0012

Snow White (1937) (6 images)

  • GEH_NitrateFrameCollection_SnowWhite_Technicolor_IMG_0047

Blood and Sand (1941) (23 images)

  • BFI_C-1608005_BloodAndSand_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0399_single

Colonel Blimp (1943) (15 images)

  • BFI_C-91729_ColonelBlimp_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_4400K_IMG_0321_single

Musical Poster Number One (1940) (11 images)

  • MoMA_MusicalPosterNumberOne_1939_Technicolor_4416_HDR_IMG_0024_single

Trade Tattoo ( (15 images)

  • MoMA_TradeTattoo_1937_Technicolor_1932_HDR_IMG_0124

Technicolor Monopak / Eastman Monopak, type 5267

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack

Secondary Sources

Lightman, Herb A. (1969): Color in the Motion Picture. In: American Cinematographer, 50,1, Jan. 1969, pp. 80-83, on p. 164.

Cornwell-Clyne, Adrian (1951): Colour Cinematography. London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 476-477.

Ryan, Roderick T. (1977): A History of Motion Picture Color Technology. London: Focal Press, p. 78. 

Clarke, Charles G. (1945): Practical Utilization of Monopack Film. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, Vol 45, Nov. 1945, pp. 327-332.

Technicolor No. V: Dye transfer prints from Eastmancolor negative

Subtractive 3 color: Dye transfer

Secondary Sources

Haines, Richard W. (1993): Technicolor Movies. The History of Dye Transfer Printing. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland, pp. 65-119.

Lavedrine, Bertrand (1998): History and Technology of Colour Photographic Processes. In: Luciano Berriatúa et al.: Tutti i colori del mondo. Il colore nei mass media tra 1900 e 1930. = All the colours of the world. Reggio Emilia: Edizioni Diabasis, pp. 117-119, on p. 119.

Andrew, Dudley (1980): The Post-War Struggle for Colour. In: Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price (eds.): Color. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, 2006, pp. 40-50, on p. 47.

Mayer, Harold A.; Brackett, F. P. (1967): Technicolor Triple-Rank Super 8. In: JSMPTE, Vol. 76, Oct. 1967, pp. 1005-1006.

13 images

  • HFA_WrittenOnTheWind_4.jpg

All That Heaven Allows (1955) (26 images)

  • HFA_AllThatHeavenAllows_3a.jpg

Written on the Wind (1956) (41 images)

  • HFA_3663_WrittenWindTrailer_1956_2014_MarkII_IMG_0034_single

To Catch a Thief (1955) (52 images)

  • HFA_CatchAThief_2_cropped

Il deserto rosso (5 images)

  • HFA_DesertoRosso_3a.jpg

Pal Joey (1957) (15 images)

  • GEH_PalJoey_TechnicolorV_IMG_0032_single

Vertigo (1958) (114 images)

  • HFA_2015_Vertigo_Reel6_HDR_IMG_0184_single

Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1953) (86 images)

  • LOC_FGA4234_GentlemenPreferBlondes_Reel1_Technicolor_HDR_IMG_0807_single

North by Northwest (1959) (97 images)

  • HFA_2015_NorthByNorthwest_Rolle3_HDR_IMG_0152_single

Neun Leben hat die Katze (1968) (14 images)

  • CatHasNineLives_picture_14

Technicolor No. VI: Dye-transfer prints from enhanced process

Subtractive 3 color: dye transfer

Secondary Sources

Haines, Richard W. (2000), Technicolor Revival. In: Film History, Vol. 12, No. 4, 2000, pp. 410-416