Agfacolor Neu / Agfacolor


“The New Agfacolor Process;
Agfa Ansco Corp., Binghamton, N. Y.

A survey of the history of monopack or multilayer photographic color processes is given, including the coloring methods of greatest importance at the present time. These are: (a) silver dye-bleaching methods and (b) silver dye-coupling methods. Silver dye-coupling methods appear to be most promising, and have been successfully applied to monopack films according to two distinct principles. In one method, color-forming compounds are added to the developing solutions. Color separation in this method depends upon control of the speed at which bleaching solutions penetrate superposed emulsion layers.

In the second method, employed in the new Agfacolor process, the different color-forming substances, instead of being added to the developing solution, are incorporated in emulsions that are coated in superposition so that three differently colored images are simultaneously formed in a single development. The metallic silver is subsequently removed by solvents leaving only pure dye images.

This new process is based upon the pioneer work on color-forming methods of R. Fischer who, before the World War, developed the process substantially as it is now being used. The contributions made by Agfa in improving this process are the perfection of dyestuff coupling components better than those available to Fischer, improved methods of preventing diffusion of the color-forming compounds, and methods of precisely controlling the manufacture of multilayer film upon a large scale, so that the present film is the practical expression in commercial form of Fischer’s process.”

(Color Committee (1937): The New Agfacolor Process. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, May 1937, pp. 561-562.)

See also Agfacolor Negative Type B, Agfacolor Negative Type G, Agfacolor Negative Type B2 for more images of the different Agfacolor stocks.

  • Opfergang (1944) Magnification
  • Münchhausen (1943)
  • Koshofer
  • Koshofer
  • Immensee (1943)
  • Koshofer
  • Koshofer
  • Koshofer
  • Koshofer
  • Koshofer
  • Frauen sind bessere Diplomaten (1939)
  • Grosse Freiheit Nr. 7 (1944)
  • Große Freiheit Nr. 7 (1944)
  • Serda_Schneider_Agfacolor_neu.jpg
  • Parade (1960)
  • Parade (1960)

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Original Technical Papers and Primary Sources

Schneider, Wilhelm; Wilmanns, Gustav (1937): Agfa-Color-Neu. In: Veröffentlichungen des wissenschaftlichen Zentral-Laboratoriums der photographischen Abteilung Agfa, 5, 1937, pp. 29-36. (in German) View Quote

IG Farbenindustrie, Berlin; Hrsg. (n.d.): Das Agfacolor Farbenfilmverfahren. Negativ-Positiv-Verfahren für die Kinoindustrie. Berlin: Deutscher Vlg. o.J. (in German) View Quote

Senger, Norbert (1943): Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete des Agfacolor-Verfährens. In: Film und Farbe. Vorträge auf der gemeinsamen Jahrestagung Film und Farbe in Dresden, 1.-3. Okt. 1942. Berlin: Max Hesse 1943. (in German) View Quote

Schmidt, Richard; Kochs, Adolf (1943): Farbfilmtechnik. Eine Einführung für Filmschaffende. Berlin: Hesse, pp. 54-125. (Schriftenreihe der Reichsfilmkammer, 10.) (in German) View Quote

Weil, Franz (1937): Psychologische Bemerkungen zur Farbenfotografie. In: Veröffentlichungen des wissenschaftlichen Zentral-Laboratoriums der photographischen Abteilung Agfa, 5, 1937, pp. 77-84. (in German) View Quote

Richter, Manfred (1942): Filmtechnik und Farbwissenschaft. In: Kinotechnik, 24, 1942, pp. 127-129. (in German)  View Quote

Secondary Sources

Alt, Dirk (2011): “Der Farbfilm marschiert!” Frühe Farbfilmverfahren und NS-Propaganda 1933-1945. München: Belleville, on pp. 19–20 View Quote, on p. 22 View Quote, on p. 26 View Quote, on p. 27 View Quote, on pp. 54–57 View Quote, on p. 62 View Quote, on p. 115 View Quote, on pp. 123–124 View Quote, on pp. 130–131 View Quote, on p. 133 View Quote, on p. 157 View Quote, on p. 163 View Quote, on p. 164 View Quote, on p. 167 View Quote, on p. 168 View Quote, on p. 177 View Quote, on p. 182 View Quote, on p. 184 View Quote, on p. 185 View Quote, on p. 188 View Quote, on p. 203 View Quote, on p. 209 View Quote, on pp. 210–211 View Quote, on pp. 212–213 View Quote, on pp. 220–221 View Quote, on p. 228 View Quote, on pp. 230–231 View Quote, on p. 241 View Quote, on p. 243 View Quote, on pp. 259–260 View Quote, on p. 268 View Quote, on pp. 310–311 View Quote, on p. 316 View Quote, on pp. 317–318 View Quote, on pp. 322–323 View Quote, on pp. 324–326 View Quote, on p. 327 View Quote, on pp. 328–329 View Quote, on pp. 341–342 View Quote, on pp. 343–344 View Quote, on p. 347 View Quote, on p. 352 View Quote, on p. 367 View Quote, on pp. 371–373 View Quote, on pp. 374–376 View Quote, on pp. 377–378 View Quote, on pp. 379 –382 View Quote, on pp. 385–389 View Quote, on pp. 392–393 View Quote, on pp. 410–411 View Quote, on p. 414 View Quote and on p. 416. (in German) View Quote

Anonymous (1956): Current Techniques of 35mm Color Film Photography and Printing. In: American Cinematographer, 37,1, January 1956, pp. 26-27 and p. 58. View Quote

Batistová, Anna (2013): Glorious Agfacolor, Breathtaking Totalvision and Monophonic Sound. Colour and “Scope” in Czechoslovakia. In: Simon Brown, Sarah Street and Liz Watkins (eds.): Color and the Moving Image. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. New York, London: Routledge, pp. 47-55. View Quote

Behrendt, Werner; Kölner, Horst (1950): Fehlerquellen beim Agfacolor-Prozeß. In: Bild und Ton, 6/1950, pp. 178-181. (in German)

Beyer, Friedemann; Koshofer, Gert; Krüger, Michael (2010): UFA in Farbe. Technik, Politik und Starkult zwischen 1936 und 1945. München: Collection Rolf Heyne, on pp. 41–44 View Quote, on p. 45 View Quote, on pp. 46–47 View Quote, on p. 47 View Quote, on pp. 48–49 View Quote, on pp. 50–53 View Quote, on pp. 54–55 View Quote and on p. 55. (in German) View Quote

Boetzel, Doris (1977): Einfluß des pH-Wertes der fotografischen Schicht auf die Haltbarkeit von Azomethin- und Indoanilin-Bildfarbstoffen. In: Bild und Ton, 5/1977, pp. 133-136. (in German)

Borde, Raymond (1988): Die Filmarchive und der Farbfilm. Eine Einführung. In: Gert Koshofer: Color. Die Farben des Films. Berlin: Wissenschaftsverl. Volker Spiess, pp. 7–10, on p. 9. (in German) View Quote

Color Committee (1937): The New Agfacolor Process. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, May 1937, pp. 561-562. View Quote

Cornwell-Clyne, Adrian (1951): Colour Cinematography. London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 353-388. View Quote

Dr. N. (1937a): Teerfarben (Anilinfarben). In: Kinotechnische Rundschau. Beilage zu Film-Kurier, 21.8.1937, Serie “Farb-Film-Fibel”. (in German) View Quote

Dr. N. (1937b): Mehrschichten-Film. In: Film-Kurier, 27.8.1937, Serie “Farb-Film-Fibel”. (in German) View Quote

Dr. Wilmanns (1941): Wie das Agfacolor-Verfahren entstand. In: Charlott Serda: Das Farbfoto-Buch vom Film. Breitkopf & Härtel: Leipzig. (in German) View Quote

Eggert, John; Heymer, Gerd (1937): Der Stand der Farbenphotographie. In: Veröffentlichungen des wissenschaftlichen Zentral-Laboratoriums der photographischen Abteilung Agfa, pp. 7–28, on p. 20 and on pp. 22–28. (in German) View Quote

Finger, Erhard (1994): Die Filmfabrik Wolfen. Porträt eines traditionsreichen Unternehmens 1909 bis 1994. GÖS-Gesellschaft für Sanierungsmaßnahmen Wolfen und Thalheim mbH, Filmfabrik Wolfen GmbH i.L., pp. 9-75. (in German) View Quote

Finger, Ehrhard (1998): Personalia: Zur Erinnerung an Persönlichkeiten der Filmfabrik. In: Industrie- und Filmmuseum Wolfen e. V. (ed.), Die Filmfabrik Wolfen. Aus der Geschichte, Heft 2, pp. 63-65. (in German) View Quote

Forrest, J. L.; Wing, F. M. (1937): The New Agfacolor Process. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, Sept. 1937, pp. 248-257.

Gill, Manfred (1997): Geschichte und Bedeutung der Filmfabrik Wolfen eine Kurzdarstellung. In: Industrie- und Filmmuseum Wolfen e. V. (ed.), Die Filmfabrik Wolfen. Aus der Geschichte, Heft 1, pp. 7-11. (in German) View Quote

Grob, Norbert (1991): Farbe im Auge, Ausdruck im Kopf. Hein Heckroths Farbdramaturgien für Powell & Pressburger. In: Katharina Spielhaupter (ed.): Hein Heckroth. Frankfurt/M.: Filmmuseum, pp. 57–78, on pp. 62–63 View Quote and on p. 63. (in German) View Quote

Gröger, Reinhold (1961): Die Bestimmung der Hydrolysebeständigkeit und Lichtechtheit der Bildfarbstoffe des Agfacolor-Materials. In: Veröffentlichungen der wissenschaftlichen Photo-Laboratorien – Agfa -, Band IX, Leipzig: Hirzel 1961, pp. 128-132. (in German)

Koshofer, Gert (1966): Fünfundzwanzig Jahre deutscher Farbenspielfilm. In: Film – Kino – Technik, Vol. 20, No. 10, 1966, pp. 259-262, on p. 259 View Quote, on p. 260 View Quote and on p. 261. (in German) View Quote

Koshofer, Gert (1999): The Agfacolor Story: English Summary. In: Weltwunder der Kinematographie, vol. 5, 1999, pp. 24-30. (in German) View Quote

Koshofer, Gert (1999): Die Agfacolor Story. In: Weltwunder der Kinematographie, vol. 5, 1999, pp. 7-106. (in German) View Quote

Köllner, Horst (1953): Gibt der Agfacolorfilm alle Farben richtig wieder? In: Bild und Ton, 10/1953, pp. 306-307. (in German)

Lavédrine, Bertrand (1998): History and Technology of Colour Photographic Processes. In: Luciano Berriatúa et al.: Tutti i colori del mondo. Il colore nei mass media tra 1900 e 1930. = All the colours of the world. Reggio Emilia: Edizioni Diabasis, pp. 117-119, on p. 119. View Quote

Lummerzheim, Hermann (1942): Das Agfacolorverfahren für farbige Photographie und Kinematographie. In: Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift, 63, 1942, pp. 583-586. (in German) View Quote

Merritt, Russell (2008): Crying in Color. How Hollywood Coped When Technicolor Died. In: Journal of the National Film and Sound Archive, Australia, 3,2/3, pp. 1–16, on p. 1. View Quote

Meyer, Kurt (1940): Die farbenfotografischen subtraktiven Mehrschichten-Verfahren. In: Ergebnisse der angewandten physikalischen Chemie, Vol. 6, No. 2, Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, on pp. 368-432. (In German) View Quote

Meyer, Kurt (1953): Die Technik des Farbfilms vervollkommnen. In: Bild und Ton, 3/1953, pp. 66-67. (in German)

Meyer, Kurt (1953): Zur Frage der farbenfotografischen Wiedergabe blauer Blütenfarben. In: Bild und Ton, 11/1953, pp. 327-328. (in German)

Meyer, Kurt (1955): Zur altersbedingten Veränderung der Farbenwerte von Farbenfotos. In: Bild und Ton, 6/1955, pp.158-159. (in German) Download

Meyer, Kurt (1961): 25 Jahre Agfacolor-Verfahren. In: Veröffentlichungen der wissenschaftlichen Photo-Laboratorien Agfa, Bd. IX. Leipzig: Hirzel, pp. 1-6. (in German) View Quote

Meyer, Kurt; Roth, Lieselotte (1956): Zur Kenntnis der Farbentwicklung IV. Zur Frage der Vereinfachung der Entwicklung von Agfacolor-Materialien (I). In: Bild und Ton, 4/1956, pp. 90-92. (in German)

Misek, Richard (2007): “Last of the Kodak”. Andrei Tarkovsky’s Struggle with Colour. In: Everett, Wendy (ed.): Questions of Colour in Cinema. From Paintbrush to Pixel. Oxford: Peter Lang, pp. 161–176, on pp. 162–163. View Quote

Pénichon, Sylvie (2013): Twentieth Century Colour Photographs. The complete guide to processes, identification & preservation. London, Los Angeles: Thames & Hudson, on p. 164. View Quote

Pierotti, Federico (2012): La seduzione dello spettro. Storia e cultura del colore nel cinema. Genova: Le Mani-Microart, on p. 135 View Quote, on pp. 162–163 View Quote and on pp. 191–192. (in Italian) View Quote

Pinel, Vincent (1992): La forêt des techniques. In: Michel Ciment (ed.): Ciné mémoire. Colloque International d’Information (7-9 octobre 1991). Paris: Femis, pp. 17–24, on pp. 21–24 (in French) View Quote

Schultze, Werner; Hörmann, Hans (1951): Die Darstellung der mit den Agfacolor-Positiv-Farbstoffen ermischbaren Farben. In: Veröffentlichungen der wissenschaftlichen Photo-Laboratorien – Agfa – Band VII, Leipzig: Hirzel 1951, pp. 156-161. (in German)

Walter, Werner (1997): Ein Zeitzeuge erzählt: Erinnerungen an über vier Jahrzehnte Tätigkeit in der Filmfabrik Wolfen. In: Industrie- und Filmmuseum Wolfen e. V. (ed.), Die Filmfabrik Wolfen. Aus der Geschichte, Heft 1, pp. 42-44. (in German) View Quote