Search ?

Technicolor No. IV: Three-strip

Description

With the fourth Technicolor process the company dominated the market for color films from the mid-1930s to the 1950s.

In a special camera, three b/w negative films were exposed through a beam-splitter that consisted of two prisms to form a cube. One portion of the incoming light passed directly to a frame aperture fitted with a green transmitting filter to the negative for the green record. The other portion of the incident light was directed by the semi-transparent, gold or silver dusted mirror at an angle of 90° to a bi-pack film, placed behind a magenta filter. The front film was orthochromatic for the blue record and contained a red-orange dye to block the blue light, the second film was panchromatic and captured the red record.

Before the dye-transfer was executed, the blank-film was exposed with a weak key image in b/w of the green record was exposed to improve perceived image sharpness. The blank film also contained the b/w optical sound track.

For the dye-transfer the three b/w records were printed onto the corresponding matrices, one for each color. Similar to process no. III, these matrices were developed, bleached and washed to form reliefs which could absorb the dyes for the imbibition of the projection print. Since this is a subtractive process the dyes were complementary to the taking colors: magenta for the green record, yellow for the blue record and cyan for the red separation.
These dyes were then transferred onto the blank film containing the key image, one after the other. It is obvious that pin-registering, i.e. the fine adjustment of the three records on top of each other, was crucial to deliver a sharp image without any color fringing.

As a reaction to the problems with process no. III, Technicolor took great care in maintaining a high standard of quality control. A cornerstone in this strategy was the Color Advisory Service, directed by Natalie M. Kalmus. The color consultants advised the productions on how to develop a color score in accordance with the narrative structure of a film. Set and costume design, props, make-up, lighting including the camera work were all controlled by the Technicolor company. The dominant ideology of Technicolor advised a restrained use of colors with an emphasis on naturalness, strictly subordinate to the story development. Colors should subtly convey dramatic moods and impressions to the audience. Kalmus also suggested the use of conventional color associations, such as red for passion, anger, power etc.

Specially trained cameramen had to learn to handle the difficult process. This required many tests before the actual shooting. Special care had to be given to shadows and highlights. White image parts tended to produce obtrusive blotches of white, while blacks were reproduced with unwanted color hues.

The emulsion was very slow, meaning that it needed high levels of illumination, and it was adjusted to the color temperature of daylight. Both these requirements led to the dominant use of hi arc (carbon-arc) lamps. Tungsten light either had to be adjusted to daylight by filters or it produced a yellow light for candles etc.

  • Technicolor_SamsonDelilah_9a.jpg
  • Koshofer_TechnicolorIV_yellow_magenta.jpg
  • Koshofer_TechnicolorIV_cyan_combined.jpg
  • Ball_Technicolor_Beamsplitter.jpg
  • Steinbacher_Ball_Technicolor_Beamsplitter_2013
  • Coote_TechnicolorCamera.jpg
  • GeorgeEastmanHouse_TechnicolorVideo
  • ThreeStripCameraTechnicolor100_still
  • Koshofer_TechnicolorIV_BeckySharp_1935_UCLA.jpg
  • Koshofer_TechnicolorIV_RobinHood_1938.jpg
  • Koshofer_TechnicolorIV_JungleBook_1942.jpg
  • Koshofer_TechnicolorIV_JesseJames_1939.jpg
  • Koshofer_TechnicolorIV_BlackNarcissus_1947.jpg
  • Koshofer_TechnicolorIV_RoguesOfSherwoodForrest_1950.jpg
  • Kelterborn_IB_Tech_1.jpg
  • Kelterborn_IB_Tech_2.jpg
  • Technicolor_SamsonDelilah_6.jpg
  • Technicolor_SamsonDelilah_8.jpg
  • Technicolor_SamsonDelilah_2.jpg
  • Technicolor_2_50x_korr.jpg
  • Technicolor_2_100x_korr.jpg
  • BFI_RedShoes_ID358365H_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0171
  • BFI_RedShoes_ID358365H_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0170
  • BFI_RedShoes_ID358365H_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0169
  • BFI_RedShoes_ID358365H_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0168
  • RedShoes_Ballet2_After.jpg
  • RedShoes_Ballet2_Finland.jpg
  • RedShoes_Ballet1b_before.jpg
  • RedShoes_Ballet1b_after.jpg
  • RedShoes_Ballet1b_Finland.jpg
  • RedShoes_Ballet1b_before.jpg
  • RedShoes_Ballet1b_after.jpg
  • RedShoes_Shoemaker_Before.jpg
  • RedShoes_Shoemaker_After.jpg
  • RedShoes_Shoemaker_Finland.jpg
  • BFI_RedShoes_ID358365H_TechnicolorIV_Cropped_IMG_0163
  • RedShoes_Walbrook_Before.jpg
  • RedShoes_Walbrook_After.jpg
  • RedShoes_ShearerCandles_Before.jpg
  • RedShoes_ShearerCandles_After.jpg
  • RedShoes_Shoes_Before.jpg
  • RedShoes_Shoes_After.jpg
  • RedShoes_Shoes_Finland.jpg
  • BFI_RedShoes_ID358365H_TechnicolorIV_MG_0159
  • BFI_RedShoes_ID358365H_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0167
  • BFI_RedShoes_ID358365H_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0166
  • BFI_RedShoes_ID358365H_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0165
  • BFI_RedShoes_ID358365H_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0164
  • BFI_RedShoes_ID358365H_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0162
  • BFI_RedShoes_ID358365H_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0161
  • BFI_RedShoes_ID358365H_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0160
  • BFI_RedShoes_ID358365H_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0158
  • BFI_RedShoes_ID358365H_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0157
  • BFI_WingsOfTheMorning_ID2030819BH_IMG_0110
  • BFI_WingsOfTheMorning_ID2030819BH_IMG_0111
  • BFI_WingsOfTheMorning_ID2030819BH_IMG_0112
  • BFI_WingsOfTheMorning_ID2030819BH_IMG_0113
  • BFI_WingsOfTheMorning_ID2030819BH_IMG_0114
  • BFI_WingsOfTheMorning_ID2030819BH_IMG_0115
  • BFI_WingsOfTheMorning_ID2030819BH_IMG_0116
  • BFI_WingsOfTheMorning_ID2030819BH_IMG_0117
  • BFI_WingsOfTheMorning_ID2030819BH_IMG_0118
  • BFI_WingsOfTheMorning_ID2030819BH_IMG_0119
  • BFI_WingsOfTheMorning_ID2030819BH_IMG_0120
  • BFI_WingsOfTheMorning_ID2030819BH_Reverse_IMG_0109
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_korr_IMG_0548_single
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_korr_IMG_0548
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0491
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0495
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0496
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0497
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0498
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0500
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0501
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0503
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0504
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0505
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0506
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0507
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_longerExposure_IMG_0508
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0510
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_longerExposure_IMG_0509
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0511
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0514
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0515
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0518
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0519
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0522
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0523
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0526
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0527
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0531
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0532
  • LOC_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0133
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0538
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_korr_IMG_0540
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_korr_IMG_0543
  • LOC_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0135
  • Academy_GoneWithTheWind_korr_IMG_0544
  • LOC_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0139
  • LOC_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0138
  • LOC_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0136
  • LOC_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0134
  • LOC_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0132
  • LOC_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0131
  • LOC_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0130
  • LOC_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0129
  • LOC_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0128
  • LOC_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0127
  • LOC_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0126
  • LOC_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0125
  • LOC_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0123
  • LOC_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0122
  • LOC_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0006
  • LOC_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0005
  • LOC_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0003
  • LOC_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0002
  • LOC_GoneWithTheWind_IMG_0001
  • Academy_PrisonerOfZendaTests_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0305
  • Academy_PrisonerOfZendaTests_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0307
  • Academy_MagicMasterMovietone_DesertWonderland_IMG_0443
  • Linienlänge:	1518.38 pixelLinienlänge:	0.00 pixel
  • Academy_MagicMasterMovietone_DesertWonderland_IMG_0445
  • Academy_MagicMasterMovietone_DesertWonderland_IMG_0446
  • Academy_MagicMasterMovietone_DesertWonderland_IMG_0447
  • Academy_MagicMasterMovietone_DesertWonderland_IMG_0448
  • Academy_MagicMasterMovietone_DesertWonderland_IMG_0449
  • Academy_MagicMasterMovietone_DesertWonderland_IMG_0450
  • EYE_B11696_Barcarolle_USA1935_Technicolor_third_s_IMG_0039_JPG
  • EYE_B11696_Barcarolle_USA1935_Technicolor_IMG_0030
  • EYE_B11696_Barcarolle_USA1935_Technicolor_IMG_0031
  • EYE_B11696_Barcarolle_USA1935_Technicolor_quarter_s_IMG_0032
  • EYE_B11696_Barcarolle_USA1935_Technicolor_half_s_IMG_0035
  • EYE_B11696_Barcarolle_USA1935_Technicolor_third_s_IMG_0037
  • EYE_B11696_Barcarolle_USA1935_Technicolor_third_s_IMG_0038
  • EYE_B11696_Barcarolle_USA1935_Technicolor_third_s_IMG_0042
  • EYE_B11696_Barcarolle_USA1935_Technicolor_third_s_IMG_0041
  • EYE_B11696_Barcarolle_USA1935_Technicolor_third_s_IMG_0040
  • EYE_B11696_Barcarolle_USA1935_Technicolor_third_s_IMG_0039
  • EYE_B11696_Barcarolle_USA1935_Technicolor_third_s_IMG_0043
  • EYE_B11696_Barcarolle_USA1935_Technicolor_Reflection_IMG_0049
  • EYE_B14150-0_Technicolor_NewKing_NSS_1936_IMG_0001
  • EYE_B14150-0_Technicolor_NewKing_NSS_1936_IMG_0002
  • EYE_B10671_BabesIntheWoods_1932_Technicolor_IMG_0003
  • EYE_B10671_BabesIntheWoods_1932_Technicolor_IMG_0004
  • EYE_B10671_BabesIntheWoods_1932_Technicolor_IMG_0005
  • EYE_B10671_BabesIntheWoods_1932_Technicolor_IMG_0006
  • EYE_B10671_BabesIntheWoods_1932_Technicolor_IMG_0007
  • EYE_B10671_BabesIntheWoods_1932_Technicolor_IMG_0008
  • EYE_B10671_BabesIntheWoods_1932_Technicolor_IMG_0009
  • EYE_B10671_BabesIntheWoods_1932_Technicolor_IMG_0010
  • ToSpring_Technicolor_IMG_0075
  • ToSpring_Technicolor_IMG_0076
  • ToSpring_Technicolor_IMG_0077
  • ToSpring_Technicolor_IMG_0078
  • ToSpring_Technicolor_IMG_0079
  • ToSpring_Technicolor_IMG_0080
  • TheLion_Technicolor_IMG_0087
  • TheLion_Technicolor_IMG_0091
  • TheLion_Technicolor_IMG_0090
  • TheLion_Technicolor_IMG_0089
  • TheLion_Technicolor_IMG_0088
  • TheHouseCat_Technicolor_IMG_0092
  • TheHouseCat_Technicolor_IMG_0093
  • TheHouseCat_Technicolor_IMG_0094
  • TheHouseCat_Technicolor_IMG_0095
  • SleepingBeauty_Technicolor_IMG_0081
  • SleepingBeauty_Technicolor_IMG_0082
  • SleepingBeauty_Technicolor_IMG_0083
  • SleepingBeauty_Technicolor_IMG_0084
  • SleepingBeauty_Technicolor_IMG_0085
  • SleepingBeauty_Technicolor_IMG_0086
  • GulliversTravels_Technicolor_IMG_0096
  • GulliversTravels_Technicolor_IMG_0097
  • GulliversTravels_Technicolor_IMG_0098
  • GulliversTravels_Technicolor_IMG_0099
  • GulliversTravels_Technicolor_IMG_0100
  • LOC_49451_CenturyOfProgress_Technicolor_IMG_0121
  • LOC_49451_CenturyOfProgress_Technicolor_IMG_0120
  • LOC_49451_CenturyOfProgress_Technicolor_IMG_0119
  • LOC_49451_CenturyOfProgress_Technicolor_IMG_0118
  • LOC_49451_CenturyOfProgress_Technicolor_IMG_0117
  • LOC_49451_CenturyOfProgress_Technicolor_IMG_0116
  • LOC_49451_CenturyOfProgress_Technicolor_IMG_0115
  • LOC_49451_CenturyOfProgress_Technicolor_IMG_0114
  • LOC_49451_CenturyOfProgress_Technicolor_IMG_0113
  • LOC_49451_CenturyOfProgress_Technicolor_IMG_0112
  • LOC_49451_CenturyOfProgress_Technicolor_IMG_0111
  • LOC_49451_CenturyOfProgress_Technicolor_IMG_0110
  • LOC_49451_CenturyOfProgress_Technicolor_IMG_0109
  • LOC_49451_CenturyOfProgress_Technicolor_IMG_0108
  • LOC_49451_CenturyOfProgress_Technicolor_IMG_0107
  • LOC_49451_CenturyOfProgress_Technicolor_IMG_0106
  • LOC_49451_CenturyOfProgress_Technicolor_IMG_0105
  • LOC_49451_CenturyOfProgress_Technicolor_IMG_0104
  • LOC_49451_CenturyOfProgress_Technicolor_IMG_0103
  • LOC_49451_CenturyOfProgress_Technicolor_IMG_0101
  • LOC_49451_CenturyOfProgress_Technicolor_IMG_0100
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_cropped_IMG_0008
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0035
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0024
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0023
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0022
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0021
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0020
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0019
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0018
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0017
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0016
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0015
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0013
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0014
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0011
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0010
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0009
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0008
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0006
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0007
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0005
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0029
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0004
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0003
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0026
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0025
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0027
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0028
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0030
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0031
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0032
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0033
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0036
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0034
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0037
  • LOC_10153-1-1_TalesOfHoffmann_Technicolor_IMG_0038
  • TalesOfHoffmann_Trailer_4KRestoration
  • GEH_1974:0007:3226_CucarachaSafety_1971_EdgeCode_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0009_single
  • GEH_1974:0007:3226_CucarachaSafety_1971_EdgeCode_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0015
  • MoMA_LaCucaracha_Technicolor_2247_HDR_IMG_0081
  • GEH_1974:0007:3226_CucarachaSafety_1971_EdgeCode_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0002
  • MoMA_LaCucaracha_Technicolor_2247_HDR_IMG_0024
  • GEH_1974:0007:3226_CucarachaSafety_1971_EdgeCode_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0003
  • MoMA_LaCucaracha_Technicolor_2247_HDR_IMG_0028
  • GEH_1974:0007:3226_CucarachaSafety_1971_EdgeCode_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0014
  • GEH_1974:0007:3226_CucarachaSafety_1971_EdgeCode_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0012
  • MoMA_LaCucaracha_Technicolor_2247_HDR_IMG_0073
  • GEH_1974:0007:3226_CucarachaSafety_1971_EdgeCode_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0013
  • MoMA_LaCucaracha_Technicolor_2247_HDR_IMG_0077
  • GEH_1974:0007:3226_CucarachaSafety_1971_EdgeCode_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0004
  • MoMA_LaCucaracha_Technicolor_2247_HDR_IMG_0032
  • GEH_1974:0007:3226_CucarachaSafety_1971_EdgeCode_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0005
  • MoMA_LaCucaracha_Technicolor_2247_HDR_IMG_0040
  • MoMA_LaCucaracha_Technicolor_2247_HDR_IMG_0036
  • GEH_1974:0007:3226_CucarachaSafety_1971_EdgeCode_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0006
  • MoMA_LaCucaracha_Technicolor_2247_HDR_IMG_0044
  • GEH_1974:0007:3226_CucarachaSafety_1971_EdgeCode_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0007
  • MoMA_LaCucaracha_Technicolor_2247_HDR_IMG_0048
  • GEH_1974:0007:3226_CucarachaSafety_1971_EdgeCode_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0008
  • MoMA_LaCucaracha_Technicolor_2247_HDR_IMG_0052
  • GEH_1974:0007:3226_CucarachaSafety_1971_EdgeCode_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0009
  • MoMA_LaCucaracha_Technicolor_2247_HDR_IMG_0056
  • GEH_1974:0007:3226_CucarachaSafety_1971_EdgeCode_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0010
  • MoMA_LaCucaracha_Technicolor_2247_HDR_IMG_0065
  • MoMA_LaCucaracha_Technicolor_2247_HDR_IMG_0060
  • GEH_1974:0007:3226_CucarachaSafety_1971_EdgeCode_TechnicolorIV_IMG_0011
  • MoMA_LaCucaracha_Technicolor_2247_HDR_IMG_0069
  • BeckySharp_Technicolor_IMG_0121_single
  • BeckySharp_Technicolor_IMG_0123
  • BeckySharp_Technicolor_IMG_0122
  • BeckySharp_Technicolor_IMG_0121
  • BeckySharp_Technicolor_IMG_0120
  • BeckySharp_Technicolor_IMG_0119
  • BeckySharp_Technicolor_IMG_0118
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_AliceFaye_IMG_0012
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_AliceFaye_IMG_0013
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_AliceFaye_IMG_0014
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_DonaDrake_IMG_0010
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_DonaldDuck_IMG_0006
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_DonaldDuck_IMG_0007
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_DonaldDuck_IMG_0008
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_DorothyLamour_IMG_0020
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_DorothyLamour_IMG_0021
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_ElsaLanchester_IMG_0022
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_FrancesLangford_IMG_0023
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_FredMacMurray_IMG_0030
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_FredricMarch_IMG_0034
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_GlennFord_IMG_0017
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_GloriaDeHaven_Technicolor_IMG_0005
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_HenryFonda_IMG_0015
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_IreneManning_IMG_0032
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_IreneManning_IMG_0033
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_JimmyLydon_IMG_0027
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_JoanFontaine_IMG_0016
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_JoanFrances_ThisIsTheArmy_MichaelCurtiz_1943_IMG_0024
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_KeyeLuke_IMG_0025
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_LonMcCallister_IMG_0028
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_MarjorieMain_IMG_0031
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_MaryMartin_IMG_0035
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_MaryMartin_IMG_0036
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_MaryMartin_IMG_0037
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_MatureVictor_IMG_0038
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_NelsonEddy_IMG_0011
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_PrestonFoster_IMG_0018
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_RoddyMcDowell_IMG_0029
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_RuthDonnelly_IMG_0009
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_SusannaFoster_IMG_0019
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_unknown_IMG_0001.CR2
  • GEH_PortraitCollection_WilliamLundigan_IMG_0026
  • GEH_NitrateFrameCollection_SnowWhite_Technicolor_IMG_0047
  • GEH_NitrateFrameCollection_SnowWhite_Technicolor_IMG_0048
  • GEH_NitrateFrameCollection_SnowWhite_Technicolor_IMG_0049
  • GEH_NitrateFrameCollection_SnowWhite_Technicolor_IMG_0050
  • GEH_NitrateFrameCollection_SnowWhite_Technicolor_IMG_0051
  • GEH_NitrateFrameCollection_SnowWhite_Technicolor_IMG_0052
  • BFI_C-1608005_BloodAndSand_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0399_single
  • BFI_C-1608005_BloodAndSand_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0399
  • BFI_C-1608005_BloodAndSand_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0398
  • BFI_C-1608005_BloodAndSand_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0397
  • BFI_C-1608005_BloodAndSand_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0396
  • BFI_C-1608005_BloodAndSand_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0395
  • BFI_C-1608005_BloodAndSand_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0394
  • BFI_C-1608005_BloodAndSand_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0393
  • BFI_C-1608005_BloodAndSand_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0392
  • Academy FilmArchiveTechnicolor_Safety_BloodAndSand_26528-1-1HDR_IMG_0137
  • Academy FilmArchiveTechnicolor_Safety_BloodAndSand_26528-1-1HDR_IMG_0129
  • Academy FilmArchiveTechnicolor_Safety_BloodAndSand_26528-1-1HDR_IMG_0125
  • Academy FilmArchiveTechnicolor_Safety_BloodAndSand_26528-1-1HDR_IMG_0121
  • Academy FilmArchiveTechnicolor_Safety_BloodAndSand_26528-1-1HDR_IMG_0117
  • Academy FilmArchiveTechnicolor_Safety_BloodAndSand_26528-1-1HDR_IMG_0113
  • Academy FilmArchiveTechnicolor_Safety_BloodAndSand_26528-1-1HDR_IMG_0109
  • Academy FilmArchiveTechnicolor_Safety_BloodAndSand_26528-1-1HDR_IMG_0105
  • Academy FilmArchiveTechnicolor_Safety_BloodAndSand_26528-1-1HDR_IMG_0101
  • Academy FilmArchiveTechnicolor_Safety_BloodAndSand_26528-1-1HDR_IMG_0097
  • Academy FilmArchiveTechnicolor_Safety_BloodAndSand_26528-1-1HDR_IMG_0093
  • Academy FilmArchiveTechnicolor_Safety_BloodAndSand_26528-1-1HDR_IMG_0089
  • Academy FilmArchiveTechnicolor_Safety_BloodAndSand_26528-1-1HDR_IMG_0085
  • Academy FilmArchiveTechnicolor_Safety_BloodAndSand_26528-1-1_area_HDR_IMG_0097
  • BFI_C-91729_ColonelBlimp_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_4400K_IMG_0321_single
  • BFI_C-91729_ColonelBlimp_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0327
  • BFI_C-91729_ColonelBlimp_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0325
  • BFI_C-91729_ColonelBlimp_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0326
  • BFI_C-91729_ColonelBlimp_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0320
  • BFI_C-91729_ColonelBlimp_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_4400K_IMG_0321
  • BFI_C-91729_ColonelBlimp_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0317
  • BFI_C-91729_ColonelBlimp_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0318
  • BFI_C-91729_ColonelBlimp_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0314
  • BFI_C-91729_ColonelBlimp_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0315
  • BFI_C-91729_ColonelBlimp_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0316
  • BFI_C-91729_ColonelBlimp_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0312
  • BFI_C-91729_ColonelBlimp_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0313
  • BFI_C-91729_ColonelBlimp_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0311
  • BFI_C-91729_ColonelBlimp_Technicolor_Reel4_2015_MarkII_IMG_0309
  • MoMA_MusicalPosterNumberOne_1939_Technicolor_4416_HDR_IMG_0024_single
  • MoMA_MusicalPosterNumberOne_1939_Technicolor_4416_HDR_IMG_0040
  • MoMA_MusicalPosterNumberOne_1939_Technicolor_4416_HDR_IMG_0036
  • MoMA_MusicalPosterNumberOne_1939_Technicolor_4416_HDR_IMG_0032
  • MoMA_MusicalPosterNumberOne_1939_Technicolor_4416_HDR_IMG_0028
  • MoMA_MusicalPosterNumberOne_1939_Technicolor_4416_HDR_IMG_0024
  • MoMA_MusicalPosterNumberOne_1939_Technicolor_4416_HDR_IMG_0020
  • MoMA_MusicalPosterNumberOne_1939_Technicolor_4416_HDR_IMG_0016
  • MoMA_MusicalPosterNumberOne_1939_Technicolor_4416_HDR_IMG_0012
  • MoMA_MusicalPosterNumberOne_1939_Technicolor_4416_HDR_IMG_0004
  • MoMA_MusicalPosterNumberOne_1939_Technicolor_4416_HDR_IMG_0008
  • MoMA_TradeTattoo_1937_Technicolor_1932_HDR_IMG_0124
  • MoMA_TradeTattoo_1937_Technicolor_1932_HDR_IMG_0120
  • MoMA_TradeTattoo_1937_Technicolor_1932_HDR_IMG_0112
  • MoMA_TradeTattoo_1937_Technicolor_1932_HDR_IMG_0116
  • MoMA_TradeTattoo_1937_Technicolor_1932_HDR_IMG_0108
  • MoMA_TradeTattoo_1937_Technicolor_1932_HDR_IMG_0104
  • MoMA_TradeTattoo_1937_Technicolor_1932_HDR_IMG_0100
  • MoMA_TradeTattoo_1937_Technicolor_1932_HDR_IMG_0092
  • MoMA_TradeTattoo_1937_Technicolor_1932_HDR_IMG_0088
  • MoMA_TradeTattoo_1937_Technicolor_1932_HDR_IMG_0084
  • MoMA_TradeTattoo_1937_Technicolor_1932_HDR_IMG_0080
  • MoMA_TradeTattoo_1937_Technicolor_1932_HDR_IMG_0076
  • MoMA_TradeTattoo_1937_Technicolor_1932_HDR_IMG_0072
  • MoMA_TradeTattoo_1937_Technicolor_1932_HDR_IMG_0068
  • MoMA_TradeTattoo_1937_Technicolor_1932_HDR_IMG_0064

Original Technical Papers and Primary Sources

Ball, J. Arthur (1935): The Technicolor Process of Three-color Cinematography. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 25,2, 1935, pp. 127-138. Available for download on this page.

Kalmus, Natalie M. (1935): Color Consciousness. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1935, pp. 139-147. View Quote

Hoch, Winton (1942): Technicolor Cinematography. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers 39, Aug. 1942, pp. 96-108. Available for download on this page.

Secondary Sources

Kalmus, Herbert T. (1938): Technicolor Adventures in Cinemaland. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 31,6, 1938, pp. 564-585, on pp. 577-584. View Quote

Ryan, Roderick T. (1977): A History of Motion Picture Color Technology. London: Focal Press, pp. 79-81. View Quote

Cornwell-Clyne, Adrian (1951): Colour Cinematography. London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 451-478. View Quote

Hoch, Winton (1944): Technicolor Cinematography. In: The Technique of Motion Picture Production. A Symposium of Papers Presented at the 51st Semi-annual Convention of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, Hollywood, Cal. New York: Interscience Publ. 1944, pp. 24-36.” View Quote

Valentine, Joe (1948): Lighting for Technicolor as Compared with Black and White Photography. In: International Photographer 20,1, Jan. 1948, pp. 7-10. View Quote

Basten, Fred E. (2005): Glorious Technicolor. The Movies’ Magic Rainbow. South Brunswick: Barnes.

Haines, Richard W. (1993): Technicolor Movies. The History of Dye Transfer Printing. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. View Quote

Andrew, Dudley (2006): The Post-War Struggle for Colour. In: Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price (eds.): Color. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, 2006, pp. 40-50, on p. 44. View Quote

Higgins, Scott (2007): Harnessing the Technicolor Rainbow. Color Design in the 1930s. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Higgins, Scott (1999): Technology and Aesthetics. Technicolor Cinematography and Design in the Late 1930s. In: Film History, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 55-76.

Higgins, Scott (2000): Demonstrating Three-Colour Technicolor: “Early Three-Colour Aesthetics and Design”. In: Film History, Vol. 12, No. 4, Color Film (2000), pp. 358-383.

Neupert, Richard (1990): Technicolor and Hollywood. Exercising Color Restraint. In: Post Script 10 (1), pp. 21–29. View Quote

Anonymous (1934): What? Color in the movies again. In: Fortune 10, Oct. 1934, pp. 92-97, 161-162, 164, 166, 168, 171.

Nowotny, Robert A. (1983): The Way of All Flesh Tones. A History of Color Motion Picture Processes, 1895-1929. New York: Garland Pub., pp. 243-260. View Quote

Bourget, Jean-Loup (1995): Esthétiques du Technicolor. In: Jacques Aumont (ed.): La Couleur en cinéma. Mailand: Mazzotta. (in French)

Biberman, Edward (1946): … In Glorious Technicolor In: Hollywood Quarterly, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Oct., 1946), pp. 50-56.

Kalmus, Herbert T. (1993): Mr. Technicolor. Absecon, N.J.: Magic Image Filmbooks.

Koshofer (1993): Seit 75 Jahren Technicolor-Filme. In: Film & TV Kameramann 42,1, 1993, pp. 24-34 (in German).

Brown, Simon (2012): Technical Appendix: Technicolor. In: Street, Sarah: Colour Films in Britain. The Negotiation of Innovation 1900-55. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 284-286 (all Technicolor processes). View Quote

Street, Sarah (2009): ‘Colour consciousness’. Natalie Kalmus and Technicolor in Britain. In: Screen 50(2), pp. 191-215.

Happé, L.B.K. (1959): The Technicolor Process. In: British Cinematography 35, 1959, pp. 4-9.

Happé, L.B.K. (1960): New Developments in Technicolor Release Printing. In: British Cinematography 37, 1960, pp. 112-116.

Schmidt, Richard / Kochs, Adolf (1943): Farbfilmtechnik. Eine Einführung für Filmschaffende. Berlin: Hesse, pp. 54-72. (Schriftenreihe der Reichsfilmkammer, 10.) (in German) View Quote

Greene, W. Howard (1938): Low Key Lighting May be as Easy in Color as it is in Monochrome. In: American Cinematographer, April 1938, p. 151. View Quote

Neale, Steve (1985): The Beginnings of Technicolor. In: Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price (eds.): Color. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, 2006, pp. 13-23, on pp. 15-21 View Quote and on p. 22. View Quote

Pinel, Vincent (1992): La forêt des techniques. In: Michel Ciment (ed.): Ciné mémoire. Colloque international d’information (7-9 octobre 1991). Paris: Femis, pp. 17-24, on pp. 21-22. (in French) View Quote

Contemporary reception

Mastin, Mildred (1935): Will Your Favorite Star Survive Color?. In: Photoplay, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 26-27 and pp. 104-105. View Quote

Dougherty, Kathryn (1935): Photoplay Close-Ups and Long-Shots. In: Photoplay, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 21-22. View Quote

Grant, Jack (1935): Will Becky Sharp Revolutionize Hollywood? In: Photoplay, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 24-25 and pp. 100-101.) View Quote

Anonymous (1935): The Shadow Stage. A Review of the New Pictures. Becky Sharp. In: Photoplay, Vol. 48, No. 4, p. 66. View Quote

Waterbury, Ruth (1936): Close Ups and Long Shots. In: Photoplay, Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 11-12. View Quote

Reid, James (1937): We Cover The Studios. In: Photoplay, Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 58-59. View Quote

(Reid, James (1937): We Cover the Studios. In: Photoplay, Vol. 51, No. 10, pp. 52-53 and p. 70.) View Quote

Betancourt, Gilbert (1937): Present Color Trend is Toward Subdued Hues. In: American Cinematographer, Aug. 1937, p. 317 and p. 352. View Quote

Meder, Thomas (1999): Die Volksgemeinschaft in Farbe. In: Weltwunder der Kinematographie, Vol. 5, 1999, pp. 107-116, on p. 108. (in German) View Quote

Theisen, Earl (1936): Notes on the history of color in motion pictures. In: International Photographer, Vol. 8, No. 5, June 1936, pp. 8-9 and p. 24. View Quote

Sennwald, Andre (1935): Becky Sharp (1935). In: New York Times, June 14, 1935. View Quote

Selected analyses

Moen, Kristian (2010): “The Miracle of our century”. Sergei Eisenstein, Élie Faure and Colour in the Silly Symphonies. In: Screen, vol 51, pp. 383–389, doi: 10.1093/screen/hjq046.

Birchard, Robert S. (2006): A Master’s Palette. Jack Cardiff, BSC Reminisces About his Achievements with Technicolor’s Three-strip Process. In: American Cinematographer, March 2006, pp. 58-65.View Quote

Andrew, Dudley (1980): The Post-War Struggle for Colour. In: Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price (eds.): Color. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, 2006, pp. 40-50, on p. 45. View Quote

Brinckmann, Christine N. (2015): Blood and Sand. Die Farben der Malerei. In: Connie Betz et al. (Hg.): Glorious Technicolor. Berlin: Bertz + Fischer, S. 89–101. (in German) Download