Lee and Turner


“Frederick Marshall Lee, of Walton, and Edward Raymond Turner, of Hounslow, to whom is usually accorded the credit of achieving the first practical results in additive projection. Their experimental work was financed by Charles Urban, a well-known impresario and showman of the day. Records were made in a camera with a single lens equipped with rotating filters of red, green and blue. Projection was attempted with three lenses vertically disposed. Apparently each picture was projected through each of the lenses in turn, and three pictures always projected simultaneously (E.P. 6,202, 1899).”

(Klein, Adrian Bernhard = Cornwell-Clyne (1940): Colour Cinematography. Boston: American Photographic Pub. Co.. 2nd revised edition, p. 6)

Later the process was developed as a two-color additive process and became wide-spread under the trade mark Kinemacolor.

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Original Technical Papers and Primary Sources

E.P. 6,202, 1899. [Download on this page.]

Secondary Sources

Brown, Simon (2012): Technical Appendix. In: Sarah Street: Colour Films in Britain. The Negotiation of Innovation 1900-55. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 259-287, on p. 276. View Quote

Hopwood, Henry Vaux (1915): Color cinematography. In: Henry Vaux Hopwood: Hopwood’s living pictures. Their history, photoproduction, and practical working. With classified lists of British patents and bibliography. London: The Hatton Press, new ed., rev. and enl. by R.B. Foster, pp. 253–273, on pp. 262–264. View Quote

Klein, Adrian Bernhard = Cornwell-Clyne (1940): Colour Cinematography. Boston: American Photographic Pub. Co. 2nd revised edition, p. 6. View Quote