Subtractive 2 color: Line screen filter, duplitized film stock
”The process as illustrated in USP 1431309 was a two-color additive process, but it is stated that it could be a three- or four-color process. For the original photography, the negative was exposed through a line screen composed of alternate bands ...
  • Ryan_Kesdacolor_fig11

1 Image

Prizma I

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter
“The color experiments were conducted in the basement of a house at 1586 E. Seventeenth St., Brooklyn, N. Y. During this time a double-coated stock and a bleach formula which had much to do with the success of the later Prizma process were ...

Prizma II

Subtractive 2 color: Toning on double coated film
  • Prizma_burroughs_02_GEH

195 Images in 12 Galleries


Additive 4 color: Rotary filter
”Kelley’s first color process was a four-color additive system introduced in 1913. Called Panchromotion, Kelley formed a company which would exploit the process commercially and, he hoped, provide strong competition for Kinemacolor. He apparently ...
  • Steinbacher (2013)

2 Images


Subtractive 2 color: Dye transfer
“In 1919 Kelley produced a series of coloured cartoons which were drawn by Pinto Colvig. In 1924 he introduced “Kelleycolor,” which was an imbibition process. Two colours were imbibed on a black-and-white key image. In 1926 he ...
  • GEH_OldFamilyToothbrush_2.jpg

1 Image

Cinecolor subtractive 2 color

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, duplitized film
  • Prehistoric Women (1951)

44 Images in 5 Galleries

Lascelles Davidson

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter
“Apparently, associated with W. Friese-Greene, in the same year, Captain William Norman Lascelles-Davidson, also of Brighton, patented a triple lens motion picture camera (E.P. 23,863, 1898). The colour filters revolved either behind the lenses, ...
  • LascellesDavidson_EP13468

1 Image


Additive 2 color: Alternately stained images
“Inevitably, the success of Kinemacolor led to the appearance of imitations. One company, Friese Greene Patents Ltd had been formed in 1908 to exploit several patents, mostly impractical, filed by Friese Greene. From this came a new company, ...
  • Coe (1981)

18 Images in 1 Gallery


Additive 3 color: Alternately stained
“In 1898 William Friese-Greene, a professional portrait photographer by trade, demonstrated in London “the first process of true natural-color cinematography.” His program consisted of “a series of animated natural-color pictures,” and ...
  • Friese-Greene Reflection

112 Images in 2 Galleries

Agfacolor Neu / Agfacolor

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack, reversal (from 1936), negative/positive process (from 1939)
“The New Agfacolor Process; Agfa Ansco Corp., Binghamton, N. Y. A survey of the history of monopack or multilayer photographic color processes is given, including the coloring methods of greatest importance at the present time. These are: (a) ...
  • Opfergang (1944) Magnification

226 Images in 9 Galleries


Subtractive 3 color: Color separation, multicolor dye images
  • Pénichon (2013)

6 Images

Agfacolor Positiv Typ 5

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack
  • BruneAbb2_S.356

1 Image

Trichromatic vision

Theory: Color vision
Theory of trichromatic vision proposed by Thomas Young.

Technicolor No. VI: Dye-transfer prints from enhanced process

Subtractive 3 color: dye transfer
In 1994, Technicolor announced the development of an enhanced dye-transfer process. This process became effective in  June 1997. There was no official denomination, so “Technicolor No. VI” is not to be confused with statements from the mid ...


Subtractive 3 color: Multi-layer printing
  • Mannoni_zoechrome_1930.jpg

16 Images in 1 Gallery


Additive 3 color: Double-sized film, rotary filter

Chromogenic film stock

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic monopack


Additive 2 color: Bi-pack, half-size


Additive 3 color: Beam-splitter, substandard
  • Cornwell_Clyne_CP1951_Dugromacolorfig1.jpg

1 Image


Additive 3 color: Prism
“R. Berthon and M. Audibert patented a method of obtaining a virtual image by means of an anterior lens and prisms or mirrors. This idea was further improved upon in E.P. 17,023, 1913. In F.P. 458,040 Audibert proposed to use a negative front lens ...
  • Mannoni_Audibert_film_lumière_trichrome_1911

2 Images

Berthon-Siemens / Siemens-Berthon / Siemens-Perutz-Verfahren / Opticolor

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen
  • Steinbacher (2013)

5 Images


Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen
“R. Berthon patented the use of a lens diaphragm with three apertures, covered respectively with red, green and blue-violet filters, and a sensitive surface on a support, the other side of which was impressed with hemi-spherical, transparent, ...
  • Steinbacher (2013)

4 Images

Mordant toning / dye toning

Applied colors: Silver replacement by mordanting
Mordant toning or dye toning is a special case of toning whereby the silver image is replaced by colored compounds. Soluble dyes attach to a colorless (silver ferrocyanide) or nearly colorless (silver iodide) silver salt obtained by bleaching. Dye ...
  • Pathé Manual (1926)

132 Images in 5 Galleries


Additive 3 color: Line screen and mosaic, still photography
“Another method of producing a line screen was patented in 1904 by the German Robert Krayn, and was demonstrated by him in November 1907. Krayn stained very thin celluloid sheets red, green and blue, and cemented them interleaved to form a thick ...
  • Coe (1981)

7 Images


Additive 3 color: 4 images on 65 mm
  • Steinbacher (2013)

2 Images

Lenticular Screen

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen
“Every element of a cross-lined screen acts as a pinhole camera, and reproduces an image of the aperture of the objective in whose rear focal plane it is placed. Thus, when using a square stop, the dots in the halftone produced will be square ...
  • Steinbacher Ede Lenticular Scheme

4 Images

Chromogenic development

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic development

Silver dye-bleach

Subtractive 3 color: Dye-bleach
“Probably the first use of the catalytic property of silver was in 1889, when E. Howard Farmer disclosed the action of a silver image upon strong dichromate solutions (Eng. P. 17773/89). When a plate or film, containing a silver image, is immersed ...


Subtractive 3 color: Beam-splitter, double-coated film, mordant toning
  • Cornwell_Clyne_CP1951_Chimicolorfig226.jpg

2 Images


Additive 2 color: Alternately stained
“Talkicolor (1929-37) Two-colour additive process Talkicolor was developed by Percy James Pearce along with Dr Anthony Bernardi who was also involved in the development of Raycol. The process was funded mainly by the author Elinor ...
  • Knowing Men (1930)

3 Images in 1 Gallery


Subtractive 2 or 3 color: Perforated mirror as beam-splitter, duplitized film
“The Brewster Process. (U.S.P. 1,752,477. 1930-) Camera. – P. D. Brewster, an American inventor, who was one of the first to apply the bipack system to colour cinematography, has a number of patents to his credit covering various cameras and ...
  • Pritchard_BrewsterColordyes

15 Images in 1 Gallery


Subtractive 2 color: Perforated mirror as beam-splitter, duplitized film
“Following the premises of one of William Friese-Greene’s systems, this two-colour subtractive process required that two reels of film be printed in parallel through a lens fitted with a prism that split light in two directions, through red ...

Russian three-color process

Subtractive three color
  • Soviet3_testament1

6 Images


Additive 3 color: Prism
  • Pfenninger_1905_Wall_1925_fig159

1 Image


Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter, sub-standard vertical
  • Steinbacher (2013)

2 Images


Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter, double-coated
  • Steinbacher (2013)

2 Images

Tinting by application of varnish

Applied colors: Tinting
Very little information is available on this very rare process. Instead of immersion into a dye-bath the positive print was coated uniformly with a varnish. This technique can be identified by the lack on dyes in the perforation area and by the ...
  • CherchiUsai_TintingVarnished_1905.jpg

1 Image

Russian two-color system

Subtractive two color
  • Russian_TwoColor_Mayorov

1 Image


Subtractive 3 color: Color separation, multilayer print
  • Koshofer

2 Images

Handschiegl / DeMille-Wyckoff / Wyckoff Process

Applied color: Imbibition
Similar to stenciling, the Handschiegl process was applied mechanically to manually defined image parts. Therefore it is an applied color process. After the film was shot and edited, for each color applied a separate print was made. In contrast to ...
  • Lights of Old Broadway

28 Images in 3 Galleries


Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, double-coated
“Harmonicoior was developed by French chemist Maurice Combes. It was first formally demonstrated in London by Harmonicoior Films Ltd, of 4 Great Winchester Street, on the 23 March 1936 at the Curzon Soho with the film Talking Hands, produced at ...


Addtive 3 color: Beam-splitter, mosaic screen, 65 mm
  • Mannoni_Audibert_trichrome_63mm.jpg

3 Images


Additive 3 color: Beam-splitter, 65 mm negative
  • CoeMovie_Horst_121.jpg

4 Images in 1 Gallery


Subtractive 2 color: Beam-splitter, double-coated
“The Dutch Sirius Color process (1929) used a camera with a beamsplitting system behind the lens to expose a single film, the film passing through two gates at right angles to each other. The double-coated print film was dye-toned. The process ...
  • Photomicrograph

118 Images in 2 Galleries

Rouxcolor 2 color / Cineoptichrome

Additive 2 color: Beam-splitter
  • cornwell_clyne_cineoptichrome.jpg

2 Images


Additive 3 color: Line screen (réseau), 35 mm and 16 mm, reversal and negative-positive stock
Dufaycolor was a regular mosaic screen process whereby the incident light was filtered through a pattern of tiny color patches in red, green and blue, the so called réseau. When viewed from an appropriate distance, the pattern fused in the eye of ...
  • A Colour Box (1935)

175 Images in 6 Galleries


Additive 3 color: Line screen (réseau), 35 mm reversal
For a description of Spicer-Dufay see detail page on Dufaycolor)
  • Eggert (1932)

12 Images in 1 Gallery

Dufaycolor reversal

Additive 3 color: Line screen (réseau), 16 mm, reversal
(see detail page on Dufaycolor)


Additive 3 color: Line screen plate, still photography
“The most successful of all the screen processes was the one initiated by Louis Dufay. Today the product is known as Dufaycolor, but it was first introduced about 1910 as the Dioptichrome plate. The first Dufay patents were assigned to an ...

Dufay / Dioptichrome Plate (sometimes incorrectly referenced as Dioptochrome)

Additive 2-4 color: Line screen plate (réseau), still photography and early experiments with film
(see detail page on Dufaycolor)
  • Coote (1993)

10 Images