Timeline of Historical Film Colors

Trichromatic vision

Theory: Color vision

Patents or original papers

Young, Thomas (1802): On the Theory of Light and Colors. In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, no. 91.

Color theory

Additive 3 color: Additive 3 color, still photography

Patents or original papers

Clerk Maxwell, James (1855): Experiments on Colour. In: Transactions of the Royal Society Edinburgh, Vol. XXI., part II, pp. 283-284.

Maxwell, James Clerk (1860): On the Theory of Compound Colours. In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, No. 150.

Clerk Maxwell, James (1861): British Journal Photography, 1861, 8, 272.

Secondary Sources

Evans, Ralph Merrill / Hanson, W.T., Jr. / Brewer, W. Lyle (1953): Principles of Color Photography. New York: Wiley 1953, pp. 271-272.

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Proposal of a variety of processes of three-color photography

Theory: still photography

Patents or original papers

Du Hauron, Louis Ducos (1859): Méthode de reconstitution photographique des couleurs. [Unpublished paper.]

Du Hauron, Louis Ducos (1869): Les Couleurs en photographie. Solution du problème. Paris. Reprinted in: Sobieszek, Robert (ed.) (1979): Two Pioneers of Color Photography. Cros and Du Hauron. New York: Arno Press.

Ducos du Hauron, Alcide (1897): La Triplace Photographique des Couleurs et l’Imprimerie. Paris: Gauthier-Villars et Fils. 488 pp.

Secondary Sources

Evans, Ralph Merrill / Hanson, W.T., Jr. / Brewer, W. Lyle (1953): Principles of Color Photography. New York: Wiley 1953, p. 273.

Potonniée, Georges (1939): “Louis Ducos du Hauron: His Life and Work.” (Translated by Edward Epstean.) In: The Photo-Engravers Bulletin, 28, pp. 18-29, 35-46.

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Patents or original papers

Cros, Charles (1869): Solution générale du problème de la photographie des couleurs. Paris. Reprinted in: Sobieszek, Robert (ed.) (1979): Two Pioneers of Color Photography. Cros and Du Hauron. New York: Arno Press.

Secondary Sources

Evans, Ralph Merrill / Hanson, W.T., Jr. / Brewer, W. Lyle (1953): Principles of Color Photography. New York: Wiley 1953, pp. 273-274.

Orthochromatic stock

b/w photography: Orthochromatic b/w stock

Patents or original papers

Vogel, Hermann Wilhelm (1873) In: Photographische Mittheilungen, Dec. 1873, 10,117, pp. 233-237.

Secondary Sources

Coe, Brian (1978): Colour Photography. The First Hundred Years 1840-1940. London: Ash & Grant, p. 116.

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Hydrotypie / Hydrotype / dye transfer

Subtractive 3 color: Dye transfer, still photography

Secondary Sources

Coe, Brian (1978): Colour Photography. The First Hundred Years 1840-1940. London: Ash & Grant, pp. 100-101.

Hirsch, Robert (2011): Exploring Color Photography. From Film to Pixels. Elsevier Focal Press: Oxford; Burlington, MA, p. 25.

Evans, Ralph Merrill / Hanson, W.T., Jr. / Brewer, W. Lyle (1953): Principles of Color Photography. New York: Wiley, p. 295.

Friedman, Joseph Solomon (1945): History of Color Photography. Boston: The American Photographic Publishing Company, p. 462.

Sensitizing theory

Color theory

Secondary Sources

Hübl, Arthur Freiherr von (1904): Three-Colour Photography. Three-Colour Printing and the Production of Photographic Pigment Pictures in Natural Colours. London: W.A. Penrose, 86-87.

Wall, E.J. (1925): The History of Three-color Photography. Boston: American Photographic Pub. Co., pp. 9-11.

Silver dye-bleach

Subtractive 3 color: Dye-bleach

Patents or original papers

Liesegang, Raphaël E. (1889) In: Photographisches Archiv, p. 328. (According to Friedman 1945: 405)

Liesegang, Raphaël E. (1897) In: Photographisches Archiv, Vol. 32 (1897), p. 161. (According to Heymer 1935: 178)

Secondary Sources

Friedman, Joseph Solomon (1945): History of Color Photography. Boston: The American Photographic Publishing Company. p. 405.

Heymer, Gerd (1935): Farbenfilme nach dem Silberbleichverfahren. In: Veröffentlichungen des wissenschaftlichen Zentral-Laboratoriums der photographischen Abteilung Agfa, 4, 1935, pp. 177-186, on p. 178. (in German)

Schultze, Werner (1953): Farbenphotographie und Farbenfilm. Wissenschaftliche Grundlagen und technische Gestaltung. Berlin/Göttingen /Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 92-95. (in German)

Lippmann

Direct color photography: Interference, still photography

Patents or original papers

Lippmann, Gabriel, 1891. Photography in Colors. In: The American Journal of Photography, 12, pp. 180-183. Translated from La Nature, February 14, 1891.

Secondary Sources

Coe, Brian (1978): Colour Photography – The first hundred years 1840-1940. London: Ash & Grant, p. 21.

Evans, Ralph Merrill / Hanson, W.T., Jr. / Brewer, W. Lyle (1953): Principles of Color Photography. New York: Wiley 1953, pp. 275-278.

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Hand coloring

Applied colors: Manual application

Patents or original papers

Brock, Gustav, F. O. (1931): Hand-Coloring of Motion Picture Film. In: JSMPE, Vol. 16, June 1931, pp. 751-755.

Secondary Sources

Cherchi Usai, Paolo (1996): The Color of Nitrate. Some Factual Observations on Tinting and Toning Manuals for Silent Films. In: Abel, Richard (Hrsg): Silent Film. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, pp.21-30, on p. 23.

Nowotny, Robert A. (1983): The Way of All Flesh Tones. A History of Color Motion Picture Processes, 1895-1929. New York: Garland Pub, pp. 10-14.

Yumibe, Joshua (2007): Silent Cinema Colour Aesthetics. In: Everett, Wendy (Ed.): Questions of Colour in Cinema. From Paintbrush to Pixel. Peter Lang: Oxford, pp. 43-44.

Yumibe, Joshua (2012): Moving Colors. Early Film, Mass Culture, Modernism. New Brunswick et al.: Rutgers University Press, pp. 3-4.

Oliveira, Joao S. de (2002): Black-and-White in Colour. In Roger Smither (ed.): This Film is Dangerous: A Celebration of Nitrate Film. Brussels: FIAF, pp. 117-122, on p. 118.

Read, Paul (2009): ‘Unnatural Colours’. An Introduction to Colouring Techniques in Silent Era Movies. In: Film History, 21.1, pp. 9-46, on pp. 13-14.

Read, Paul; Meyer, Mark-Paul (2000): Restoration of Motion Picture Film. Oxford, p. 181.

Cherchi Usai, Paolo (2000): Silent Cinema. London: BFI, pp. 21-22.

Ledig, Elfriede / Ullmann, Gerhard (1988): Rot wie Feuer, Leidenschaft, Genie, Wahnsinn. Zu einigen Aspekten der Farbe im Stummfilm. In: Der Stummfilm. Konstruktion und Rekonstruktion. Hrsg. v. Elfriede Ledig. München: Schaudig, Bauer, Ledig, pp. 89-116. (in German)

Mazzanti, Nicola (2009): Colours, audiences, and (dis)continuity in the ‘cinema of the second period’ In: Film History. Vol. 21, No. 1, 2009, pp. 67-93.

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Chromogenic development

Subtractive 3 color: Chromogenic development

Patents or original papers

Liesegang, Raphaël E. (1895): Die Farbe der Silberbilder In: Photographisches Archiv, 36, pp. 115-119.

Lenticular Screen

Additive 3 color: Lenticular screen

Patents or original papers

Ahriman = Liesegang, Raphaël E. (1896): Von der zukünftigen Photographie. Ein neues Prinzip der Farbenphotographie. In: Photographisches Archiv, 37, pp. 249–251 (1896).

British Journal of Photography, Vol. 43 (1896), p. 569.

Secondary Sources

Friedman, Joseph Solomon (1945): History of Color Photography. Boston: The American Photographic Publishing Company. p. 225.

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Toning / metallic toning (French: virage, German: Tonung)

Applied colors: Replacement of silver

Patents or original papers

Eastman Kodak Company (1916): Tinting and Toning of Eastman Positive Motion Picture Film. Rochester, NY. [following editions in 1918, 1922, 1924, and 1927]

Didiée, L. (1926): Le Film vierge Pathé. Manuel de développement et de tirage. Paris: Pathé, pp. 129-135. (in French) 

(1925*): Agfa Kine-Handbuch. Berlin: Actien-Gesellschaft für Anilin-Fabrikation, Teil I pp. 79-81; Teil III pp. 7-15. (in German) [* year estimated]

Secondary Sources

Read, Paul (2009): ‘Unnatural Colours’. An Introduction to Colouring Techniques in Silent Era Movies. In: Film History, 21.1, pp. 9-46, on pp. 14-15.

Mazzanti, Nicola (2009): Colours, audiences, and (dis)continuity in the ‘cinema of the second period’ In: Film History, Volume 21, Number 1, 2009, pp. 67-93.

Cherchi Usai, Paolo (1996): The Color of Nitrate. Some Factual Observations on Tinting and Toning Manuals for Silent Films. In: Abel, Richard (Hrsg): Silent Film. New Brunswick : Rutgers University Press, pp. 21-30, on pp. 26-27.

Cherchi Usai, Paolo (2000): Silent Cinema. London: BFI, pp. 24-27.

Ryan, Roderick T. (1977): A History of Motion Picture Color Technology. London: Focal Press, pp. 19-20. 

Yumibe, Joshua (2012): Moving Colors. Early Film, Mass Culture, Modernism. New Brunswick et al.: Rutgers University Press, pp. 4-6   and pp. 100-105.

Oliveira, Joao S. de (2002): Black-and-White in Colour. In: Roger Smither (ed.), This Film is Dangerous. A Celebration of Nitrate Film. Brussels: FIAF, pp. 117-122, on pp. 118-119.

(1911): Toning and tinting as an adjunct to the picture. In: Moving Picture World, 8, 18.3.1911, p. 574.

Genaitay, Sonia; Dixon, Bryony (2010): Early Colour Film Restoration at the BFI National Archive. In: Journal of British Cinema and Television, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 131-146.

Read, Paul; Meyer, Mark-Paul (2000): Restoration of Motion Picture Film. Oxford, pp. 185-188.

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Tinting

Applied colors: Dyed gelatin

Patents or original papers

Eastman Kodak Company (1916): Eastman Kodak Company, Tinting and Toning of Eastman Positive Motion Picture Film. Rochester, NY. [following editions in 1918, 1922, 1924, and 1927]

Didiée, L. (1926): Le Film vierge Pathé. Manuel de développement et de tirage. Paris: Pathé.

(1925*): Agfa Kine-Handbuch. Berlin: Actien-Gesellschaft für Anilin-Fabrikation, Teil I pp. 79-81; Teil III pp. 7-15. (in German) [* year estimated]

Secondary Sources

Read, Paul (2009): ‘Unnatural Colours’. An Introduction to Colouring Techniques in Silent Era Movies. In: Film History, 21.1, pp. 9-46, on pp. 9-10 and pp. 12-13.

Cherchi Usai, Paolo (2000): Silent Cinema. London: BFI, pp. 23-24.

Cherchi Usai, Paolo (1996): The Color of Nitrate. Some Factual Observations on Tinting and Toning Manuals for Silent Films. In: Abel, Richard (Hrsg): Silent Film. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, pp. 21-30.

Yumibe, Joshua (2012): Moving Colors. Early Film, Mass Culture, Modernism. New Brunswick et al.: Rutgers University Press, p. 4 , pp. 76-77  and pp. 97-101.

Mazzanti, Nicola (2009): Colours, audiences, and (dis)continuity in the ‘cinema of the second period’ In: Film History, Volume 21, Number 1, 2009, pp. 67-93.

Oliveira, Joao S. de (2002): Black-and-White in Colour. In Roger Smither (ed.):
This Film is Dangerous. A Celebration of Nitrate Film. Brussels: FIAF, pp. 117-122, on p. 120.

(1911): Toning and tinting as an adjunct to the picture. In: Moving Picture World, 8, 18.3.1911, p. 574.

Mabberley, Bob; Read, Paul; Snoek, Sonja (1998): Recording and Reproducing the Original Tints and Tones of Quo Vadis A Technical Case Study. In: Brusatin, Manlio et al (eds.): Tutti i colori del mondo. Il colore nei mass media tra 1900 e 1930. Reggio Emilia: Edizioni Diabasis, pp. 151-155.

Genaitay, Sonia; Dixon, Bryony (2010): Early Colour Film Restoration at the BFI National Archive. In: Journal of British Cinema and Television, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 131-146.

Christensen, Thomas C. (2009): Restoration of Danish Silent Films – in Colour. In: Film History: An International Journal, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 180-183.

Ryan, Roderick T. (1977): A History of Motion Picture Color Technology. London: Focal Press, pp. 16-19.

Nowotny, Robert A. (1983): The Way of all Flesh Tones. A History of Color Motion Picture Processes, 1895-1929. New York: Garland Pub., pp. 20-25.

Gunning, Tom (1996): Colorful Metaphors. The Attraction of Color in Early Silent Cinema. In: Monica Dall’Asta, Guglielmo Pescatore and Leonardo Quaresima (eds.): Il colore nel cinema muto. Bologna: Clueb, on pp. 27-29.

Valtrovic, Vanja; Dibbets, Karel (1996): Colour in Italian Silent Films. In: Monica Dall’Asta, Guglielmo Pescatore and Leonardo Quaresima (eds.): Il colore nel cinema muto. Bologna: Clueb, on pp. 47-48.

Ramsaye, Terry (1919): Color photography and the motion picture. In: Photoplay 15, March 1919, pp. 84, 86, on p. 86.

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Joly

Additive 3 color: Line screen process, still photography

Secondary Sources

Coe, Brian (1978): Colour Photograph. The First Hundred Years 1840-1940. London: Ash & Grant, pp. 46 f.

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Isensee

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter

Patents or original papers

D.R.P. 98,799, Dec. 17, 1897

Secondary Sources

Wall, E.J. (1925): The History of Three-color Photography. Boston: American Photographic Pub. Co.: pp. 584.

Klein, Adrian Bernhard = Cornwell-Clyne (1940): Colour Cinematography. Boston: American Photographic Pub. Co. 2nd revised edition, p. 5.

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Lascelles Davidson

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter

Patents or original papers

E.P. 3,560 (1899)

E.P. 10,043 (1901)

E.P. 13,468 (1902)

U.S.P. 653,380

Secondary Sources

Klein, Adrian Bernhard = Cornwell-Clyne (1940): Colour Cinematography. Boston: American Photographic Pub. Co.. 2nd revised edition, pp. 6.

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Friese-Greene

Additive 3 color: Alternately stained

Patents or original papers

Bedding, Thomas (1909): “Moving Pictures In Natural Colors”. In: Moving Picture World, 4, February 27, 1909, pp. 230-231.

E.P. 4,774

E.P. 9,465

E.P. 13,883

E.P. 21,649

Secondary Sources

Nowotny, Robert A. (1983): The Way of All Flesh Tones. A History of Color Motion Picture Processes, 1895-1929. New York: Garland Pub., pp. 27-38.

Cherchi Usai, Paolo (2000): Silent Cinema. London: BFI, p. 28.

Talbot, Frederick A. (1923): Moving Pictures. Philadelphia: Lippincott 1923, p. 343.

Klein, Adrian Bernhard = Cornwell-Clyne (1940): Colour Cinematography. Boston: American Photographic Pub. Co.. 2nd revised edition: p. 5.

Hulfish, David Sherill (1913): Motion-Picture Work. Chicago: American School of Correspondence. First edition: pp. 197-201. 

Anonymous (1910): Friese-Greene Color Process. In: The Moving Picture World, 7, 7.12.1910, p. 1413. Repr. from: Kinematograph and Lantern Weekly. London.

(1911): The Friese-Greene Color Process, Moving Picture World, January 21, 1911, p. 146.

Allister, Ray (1948): Friese-Greene. Close Up of An Inventor. London: Marsland.

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Lee and Turner

Additive 3 color: Rotary filter

Patents or original papers

E.P. 6,202, 1899. [Download on this page.]

Secondary Sources

Klein, Adrian Bernhard = Cornwell-Clyne (1940): Colour Cinematography. Boston: American Photographic Pub. Co.. 2nd revised edition, p. 6.

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Bi-pack

Subtractive 2 color: Bi-pack, still photography

Patents or original papers

D.R.P. 146.149 (1902)

E.P. 28,920 (1897)

E.P. 7,924 (1903)

U.S.P. 730,454

Secondary Sources

Friedman, Joseph Solomon (1945): History of Color Photography. Boston: The American Photographic Publishing Company, p. 93.

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Krayn

Additive 3 color: Line screen and mosaic, still photography

Patents or original papers

E.P. 13,093, 1902; D.R.P. 152,797, 1901 (Wall)

D.R.P. 167232; E. P. 19202/05; Fr. P. 357895, additions 5375, 6534, 6536,
6537; 386772 and 409367 (Friedmann)

Silbermann, 1, 235; abst. British Journal of Photography, 1907, 54, Col. Phot. Supp. 1, 80; J. S. C. I. 1903, 22, 923; Handbuch, 1917,4, II, 195; Phot. News, 1906, 50, 1040; Belg.P. 150,329, 1900; Phot. Coul. 1908, 3, 124.

Secondary Sources

Friedman, Joseph Solomon (1945): History of Color Photography. Boston: The American Photographic Publishing Company, p.153.

Coe, Brian (1978): Colour Photography. The First Hundred Years 1840-1940. London: Ash & Grant, p. 54.

Mees, C. E. Kenneth (1928): The Processes of Color Photography. II. Screen Plate Processes. In. The Journal of Chemical Education, 1928, 5 (12), pp. 1577-1582, on pp. 1580-1581.

Wall, E.J. (1925): The History of Three-color Photography. Boston: American Photographic Pub. Co., p. 327.

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Monopack stripping

Subtractive 3 color: Monopack, stripping, still photography

Patents or original papers

U.S.P. 781469, Sept. 13,1904 and 886883, May 15, 1905 , D.R.P. 165544 and 185888; and E.P. 19940/04

Secondary Sources

Friedman, Joseph Solomon (1945): History of Color Photography. Boston: The American Photographic Publishing Company. p. 86.

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Pinatype / Pinatypie

Subtractive 3 color: Dye transfer, still photography

Patents or original papers

Meister Lucius & Brüning (1905): Pinatypie. Positiv-Verfahren für die Dreifarbenphotographie. Höchst am Main.

U.S.P. 885453; Eng. P. 7557/05; Fr. P. 337054; D.R.P. 176693

Secondary Sources

Wall, E.J. (1925): The History of Three-color Photography. Boston: American Photographic Pub. Co., p. 335.

Friedman, Joseph Solomon (1945): History of Color Photography. Boston: The American Photographic Publishing Company, pp. 462-463.

Evans, Ralph Merrill / Hanson, W.T., Jr. / Brewer, W. Lyle (1953): Principles of Color Photography. New York: Wiley, p. 295.

Koshofer, Gert (1981): Geschichte der Farbverfahren in der Spezialistenzeit. In: Joseph-Haubrich-Kunsthalle and Agfa-Gevaert Foto-Historama Leverkusen (eds.): Farbe im Photo. Die Geschichte der Farbenphotographie von 1861 bis 1981. Katalogbuch. Köln: Joseph-Haubrich-Kunsthalle. (in German)

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Jumeaux/Davidson

Additive 3 color: Prism

Patents or original papers

English Patents 3,729, 1903 ; 7,179, 1904; 27,419, 1904. F.P. 342 445.

British Journal of Photography, 1907, 54, Col. Phot. Supp. 1, 88.

Secondary Sources

Wall, E.J. (1925): The History of Three-color Photography. Boston: American Photographic Pub. Co., p. 588.

Klein, Adrian Bernhard = Cornwell-Clyne (1940): Colour Cinematography. Boston: American Photographic Pub. Co.. 2nd revised edition, pp. 8.

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Theory of three-color photography

Theory

Patents or original papers

Hübl, Arthur Freiherr von (1904): Three-Colour Photography. Three-Colour Printing and the Production of Photographic Pigment Pictures in Natural Colours. London: W.A. Penrose.

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Tinting by application of varnish

Applied colors: Tinting

Patents or original papers

(1925*): Agfa Kine-Handbuch. Berlin: Actien-Gesellschaft für Anilin-Fabrikation. [* year estimated]

Secondary Sources

Cherchi Usai, Paolo (2000): Silent Cinema. London: BFI.

Read, Paul (2009): ‘Unnatural Colours’. An Introduction to Colouring Techniques in Silent Era Movies. In: Film History, 21.1, pp. 9-46, on p. 14.

Read, Paul; Meyer, Mark-Paul (2000): Restoration of Motion Picture Film. Oxford, p. 183.

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Pathécolor / Pathéchrome / stencil coloring

Applied colors: Stencil, dyed gelatin

Patents or original papers

M. Ruot and L. Didiée (1925): The Pathé Kinematograph Colour Process. In: The Photographic Journal, new series, vol. 65, no. 3, March 1925, pp. 121-126.

Kelley, William Van Doren (1931): The Handschiegl and Pathéchrome Color Process. In: Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 18,2, 1931, pp. 230-234, on pp. 233-234.

Secondary Sources

Abel, Richard (1996): Pathé’s Heavenly Billboards In: Monica Dall’Asta, Guglielmo Pescatore and Leonardo Quaresima (eds.): Il colore nel cinema muto. Bologna: Clueb.

Nowotny, Robert A. (1983): The Way of all Flesh Tones. A History of Color Motion Picture Processes, 1895-1929. New York: Garland Pub, pp. 11-13.

Read, Paul (2009): ‘Unnatural Colours’. An Introduction to Colouring Techniques in Silent Era Movies. In: Film History, 21.1, pp. 9-46, on pp. 15-16.

Yumibe, Joshua (2012): Moving Colors. Early Film, Mass Culture, Modernism. New Brunswick et al.: Rutgers University Press, pp. 4-6  and 78-97.

Cherchi Usai, Paolo (1996): The Color of Nitrate. Some Factual Observations on Tinting and Toning Manuals for Silent Films. In: Abel, Richard (Hrsg): Silent Film. New Brunswick : Rutgers University Press, pp. 21-30, on pp. 24-25.

Toning and tinting as an adjunct to the picture. In: Moving Picture World 8, 18.3.1911, p. 574.

Lameris, Bregtje (2003): Pathécolor: ‘Perfect in Their Rendition of the Colours of Nature’ In: Living Pictures. The Journal of the Popular and Projected Images Before 1914, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2003, pp. 46-58.

Hanssen, Eirik Frisvold (2009): Symptoms of Desire. Colour, Costume, and Commodities in Fashion newsreels of the 1910s and 1920s. In: Film History, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2009, pp. 107-121.

Enticknap, Leo (2005): Moving Image Technology. From Zoetrope to Digital. London: Wallflower Press, pp. 76-77.

Minguet Batllori, Joan M. (2009): Segundo de Chomón and the Fascination for Colour. In: Film History, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 94-103.

Hanssen, Eirik Frisvold (2006): Early Discourses on Colour and Cinema. Origins, Functions, Meanings. (= Diss. University of Stockholm, Stockholm Cinema Studies, No. 2), pp. 65-68.

Talbot, Frederick A. (1912): Moving Pictures. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, pp. 288-289.

Salmon, Stéphanie (2009): Tinting and Toning at Pathé: The Jacques Mayer notebook. In: Film History.Vol. 21, No. 2, 2009, pp. 177-179.

Ryan, Roderick T. (1977): A History of Motion Picture Color Technology. London: Focal Press, pp. 22-23.

O’Brien, Charles (2007): Film Colour and National Cinema Before WWI. Pathécolor in the United States and Great Britain. In: Frank Kessler and Nanna Verhoeff (eds.): Networks of Entertainment. Early Film Distribution 1895-1915. Eastleigh: John Libbey, pp. 30-37.

Dana, Jorge; Kolaitis, Niki (2009): Colour by Stencil. Germaine Berger and Pathécolor. In: Film History, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 180-183.

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Prism

Additive 3 color: Prism

Patents or original papers

E.P. 322 (1905)

E.P. 5,945 (1909)

E.P. 25,908 (1906)

Secondary Sources

Wall, E.J. (1925): The History of Three-color Photography. Boston: American Photographic Pub. Co., p. 589.

Klein, Adrian Bernhard = Cornwell-Clyne (1940): Colour Cinematography. Boston: American Photographic Pub. Co.. 2nd revised edition, pp. 7.

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Katachromie

Subtractive 3 color: Monopack silver dye-bleach, still photography

Patents or original papers

Anonymous (1905): Schinzel: One-Plate Colour Photography. In: The British Journal of Photography, 52, August, pp. 608-609.

Aust. P. 42478/08

Secondary Sources

Coe, Brian (1978): Colour Photography. The First Hundred Years 1840-1940. London: Ash & Grant, pp. 120-121.

Cornwell-Clyne, Adrian (1951): Colour Cinematography. London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 23, 419-420 , 668, 669, 698, 739.

Friedman, Joseph Solomon (1945): History of Color Photography. Boston: The American Photographic Publishing Company, pp. 94-95 , 406.

Traube / Diachromie

Subtractive 3 color: Mordant toning, still photography

Patents or original papers

E.P. 10,258 (1907)

Traube, W. (1906): A New Three-Colour Process. In: The British Journal of Photography, 53, p. 942.

Traube, W. (1906): A New Three-Colour Printing Process. In: The British Journal of Photography, , 53, pp. 944-945.